By Cruz F. R., Mateus G. R., Smith J. M.

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Extra resources for A Branch-and-Bound Algorithm to Solve a Multi-level Network Optimization Problem

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We will explain the procedure for the three types of t-tests one by one. 1 A business school in its advertisements claims that the average salary of its graduates in a particular lean year is at par with the average salaries offered at the top five business schools. A sample of 30 graduates, from the business school whose claim was to be verified, was taken at random. 1. 1 56 STATISTICAL METHODS FOR PRACTICE AND RESEARCH The average salary offered at the top five business schools in that year was given as Rs 750,000.

For example, gender, religion, race, color, occupation etc. BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS 2. The ordinal scale indicates ordering of items. For example, agreementdisagreement scale (1—strongly agree to 5—strongly disagree), consumer satisfaction ratings (1—totally satisfied to 5—totally dissatisfied) etc. Qualitative data could be dichotomous in which there are only two categories (for example, gender) or multinomial in which there are more than two categories (for example, geographic region). 2 Quantitative Variables Quantitative variables are those variables which differ in degree rather than kind.

05 is generally taken as standard. 3 One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests A directional hypothesis is tested with a one-tailed test whereas a nondirectional hypothesis is tested with a two-tailed test. The following three relationships are only possible between any two parameters, µ1 and µ2: (a) µ1 = µ2 (b) µ1 < µ2 (c) µ1 > µ2 35 36 STATISTICAL METHODS FOR PRACTICE AND RESEARCH To be able to formulate mutually exclusive and exhaustive null and alternative hypotheses from these relations we can choose either (b) or (c) as alternative hypothesis and combine one of these two with (a) to formulate the null hypothesis.

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